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写作中词汇量不足的应急措施_教育资源库

写作中词汇量不足的应急措施
作者:佚名 文章来源:教育资源库 点击数: 更新时间:2009-6-24

写作中词汇量不足的应急措施

    在四六级作文中,词汇量不足是影响成绩的一个重要因素。一个意思往往因为一个单词不会而表达不清,一个好的句子也会因为一个词汇想不起来而不能完成。如何应付这种情况使作文顺利进行下去?下面是三种简便易行的应急措施可能对你会有所帮助。
    1.试用笼统词
    英语语言中笼统词有have, take 等,笼统词的重要特点在于意义广泛,搭配性强,构成词组后可以替代众多具体动词。虽然不能精确表达一个动作,却能大致表达意思。在一些具体动词写不出来的时候,用这些笼统词取代,也能收到异曲同工的效果。
    例如:我经历了一个极其艰苦的时代。
    I experienced a terrible hard time.
    这一句中,experience被遗忘时,用have代替,成为:I had a terrible hard time. 其效果及表达的意义决不亚于第一句。这样的例子还很多。如:
    Do you understand my meaning, sir? = Do you take my meaning, sir?
    I will preside over the meeting. = I will take the meeting.
    I will subscribe to the local newspaper. = I will take the local newspaper.
    They occupied the city. = They took the city.
    The boy resembles his father. = The boy takes after his father.
    从以上的例句不难看出,具体词音节较多,使用频率不高,容易遗忘,而笼统词则不然。因此,在作文应试中,笼统词取代具体词,不失为一种应急良策。
    2.联想有关词汇
    当遗忘产生时,或遇到未曾学过的词时,应采取放射性思维,发挥想象力,想出一切与之有关的单词,利用语言的内在联系,多层次,多角度地运用语言。一般情况下,联想可按下列思路进行:1联想同义词;2联想反义词。
    英语语言中众多的同义词在许多情况下是可以通用的。利用这一规律,由于某个单词受阻而影响全篇写作的情况便不会出现。试看下列句子:
    I had a nightmare last night. = I had a bad dream last night.
    Nightmare 使用频率不太高,因此不太好记。而其同义词bad dream 却很容易记。以后者取代前者丝毫不影响原句的意义。再比如:I don‘t understand this word. 也可以说成 I don’t know this word.
    另外:
    He is stupid. = He is foolish. = He is a fool. = He is silly.
    The food is delicious. = The food is tasty. = The food is nice to eat.
    They discontinued the work at five. = They stopped the work at five.
    His temper is nasty. = His temper is terrible. = He has a bad temper.
    英语语言中词与词之间是有联系的,词与词之间语义的“共核”现象即所谓的同义词。丰富的同义词给我们提供了极大的方便。
    同样,用其反义词来取代某一遗忘了的词也是可行的,请看下面的例子:
    He is stubborn. = He is not tame.
    The knife is blunt. = The knife is not sharp.
    This is expensive. = This is not cheap.
    She is talkative. = She is never quiet.
    3. 试用解释性语句
    语言的功能在于表达,而表达的方式是多种多样的。当一个词影响到??以沟通。英语当中多功能解释性语句,就可以起到这一作用。请看下面的句子:
    He is a dumb. = He is a person who can not speak.
    He refused. = He said “no”.
    I‘ve never seen such a stubborn person. = I’ve never seen such a person who never listens to other‘s advice.
    解释性语句能帮助我们巧妙地避开一些大词,难词,又能使意思表达流畅,不失为一聪明之举。比较下面两篇文章:
    (1)
    Examination is a common headache to students all over the world. They all detest is, but all being domineered by it. It represents a trial; the grade its verdict.
    Nowadays, examination has bec

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