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人教版八年级英语上册第二单元知识详解_5151doc

人教版八年级英语上册第二单元知识详解
作者:佚名 文章来源:教育资源库 点击数: 更新时间:2011-10-7

考点扫描:


一)习惯用语:

have a headache (患)头痛

have a sore back 背痛

have a (bad) cold (重)感冒

have a sore throat 喉咙痛 

lie down 躺下

have a stomachache 肚子痛 

hot tea with honey 加有蜂蜜的热茶

see a dentist 看牙医

two days ago  两天前 

have a fever  发烧   

be stressed out 紧张的 

listen to music 听音乐

for example 例如

No problem 没问题

too much + 不可数名词   太多的… 

much too +形/副   实在太… 

too many + 可数名词复数 太多的…

a balanced diet 平衡饮食

have a rest 休息

a few + 可数名词复数  少许…

a little + 不可数名词/形/副    一点…

at the moment=now  此时,此刻 

host family  寄宿家庭

good idea 好主意

yang foods 阳性食物
healthy food   健康食品
conversation practice  对话练习
a lot of 很多


二)重点句型:
1. I have a sore throat.  我喉咙痛。

2. Maybe you should see a dentist.  也许你应该看看牙医。

3. You should eat hot yang foods, like beef .
你应该吃热的阳性食品,像牛肉。

4. I’m stressed out. 我压力太大。

5. It’s important to eat a balanced diet. 平衡饮食很重要。

6. You should eat fruit and other healthy food. 
你应该吃水果和其它的健康食品。

7. You should lie down and rest. 你应该躺下来休息。

8. I like to listen to music.  我喜欢听音乐。

9. I really need some conversation practice. 我的确需要一些对话练习。

10.I have a lot of headaches. 我头痛得很厉害。

11.What’s the matter (with you )? (你)怎么啦?
I’m not feeling well. 我感觉不舒服。

12.That’s a good idea. 好主意。

13.I hope you feel better soon. 我希望你尽快好起来。


三)交际用语:
——What's the matter?         ——I have a headache.

——You should drink some tea. —— That sounds like a good idea.
——I have a sore back .——That's too bad. I hope you feel better soon.

四)主题写作:
谈论健康、并能给人提一些养生的建议。


词语点击:
1.matter: [′m?t?]
1)名词 n. ① 事情;问题;事件[C]
 It was a matter of life and death for them.这事对他们来说是生死攸关。

② 麻烦事,毛病[the S][(+with)]
What is the matter with this car?这辆汽车出了什么毛病?

2)不及物动词 vi.

①(常用于否定句和疑问句)有关系,要紧。
All these things do not matter now.所有这一切现在都无关紧要了。

②It does not matter(if…)(即使……也)不要紧 例如:
When talking about fighting battles, Comrade Liu Bocheng often quotes a Sichuan proverb "It does not matter if it is a yellow cat or a black cat, as long as it catches mice."

刘伯承同志经常讲一句四川话:“黄猫、黑猫,只要捉住老鼠就是好猫。”这是说的打仗

 

2.back: [b?k] 
1)名词 n.① 背脊,背部[C]
  Someone patted me on the back. 有人在我背上轻轻地拍了一下。
②后部[the S][(+of)]
  Grandpa and grandma sat in the back of the car.
   爷爷和奶奶坐在汽车后排的座位上。

2)副词 adv..在原处;回原处
Joan and I walked back to the college.我和琼步行回到学校。

形容词 adj. [Z]后面的,后部的
He sat in the back seat of the car. 他坐在车子后面的座位上。

 
3.rest:[rest] 

1)不及物动词 vi.  休息;睡;安息,长眠[(+from)]
Mrs. Whitman rests with her husband. 惠特曼太太与先生长眠一处。
2) 及物动词 vt. 使休息;使安息;使轻松
 The doctor tried to rest his patient's mind at ease.
   医生设法让病人安下心来。

3) 名词 n. 剩余部分;其余的人;其余
The rest of the eggs have gone bad. 其余的鸡蛋都变质了。

 

4.ago: [?′g?u] 

副词 adv. 在...以前,要置于一段时间之后,不可单独使用,指从现在看一段时间以前。
We visited  France about three years ago. 我们大约三年前去法国游玩过。

 

5.so: [s?u]
1)副词 adv. 这么,那么;【口】多么,非常
    I'm so pleased to see you. 看到你我真高兴。

2)连接词 conj. 因此,所以,它不能与because连用。
The monitor was ill so I went in  his place班长病了所以我代他去。
3)如此,这样,为了避免重复前面所说过的内容,可与believe,do,expect,hope,think等表示看法、意见的动词及I'm afraid连用。例如:
——I think the weather will be fine. ——I think so.


6.illness:  [′ilnis]
名词 n.  患病(状态);身体不适[U]
During his illness, John stayed indoors.约翰在生病期间足不出户。

它是由形容词ill+名词后缀-ness构成,其同义词为sickness.
【拓展】类似的词有:
carelessness粗心;happiness幸福;darkness黑暗;kindness好意


7.stress[stres]
1)名词 n. 压力;紧张;压迫[U][C][(+on)]
  Susan was completely weighed down by the stress of examinations.
     苏珊被考试的压力压垮了
2)及物动词 vt.加压力于;使紧张
  The weight of snow stressed the roof to the point of collapsing.
    雪的重量压得屋顶快要塌了。
3)be stressed out意为“有压力的,紧张的”。
  Susan was so stressed out that she needed to relax herself.

苏珊太紧张了,她需要放松自己。

 

8.way: [wei] 
名词 n. ①路,通路,道路[C]
  Can you show me the way to the Post Office? 你能否告诉我去邮局的路?

②路程,距离[the S]
It's a long way to the railroad station.到火车站路程很远。

③方法,方式[C][  (+to-v)]
Scientists are trying to find ways to prevent disease.

科学家们正试图找到防

④方向 Come this way,please.请这边来。
【短语】1)on the/one'sway (to)…在去某地的路上。例如:
  On the way to the airport,they hear the report.
   在去机场的路上,他们听到了这个报道。
in many/some ways 在许多/一些方面.例如;
  In some ways you are right.在某些方面你是对的。
【拓展】believe,think,supposed等词的宾语从句若要表示否定意义,需否定转移,即否定主句的谓语动词。例如:
 I don't think he could do that in that way.我相信他不会那样做。

 

9.weak[wi:k]
形容词 adj. 弱的,虚弱的;衰弱的,它的名词形式为weakness,同音词为week(星期)
She is still weak after her long illness. 久病之后她仍很虚弱。

10.angry[′??gri] 
形容词adj.愤怒的,生气的,其副词形式为angrily.
 1)be angry with sb.生某人的气;2)be angry at sth.因某事生气。例如:
 I was angry with him for keeping me waiting.
   我对他很生气,因为他让我等了好久。
 What are you angry at?你因何事生气?
 The man left the room angrily.那个人生气地离开了房间。

11.medicine: [′medisin] 
名词 n. 药,内服药(不可数名词)
Why did the patient refuse to take the medicine?

那个病人为什么不肯服药?
其形容词为medical医学的、医疗的
The soldiers at front needed medical care greatly.前线的士兵急需医护。
“吃药”要用动词take或have,不要用eat或drink.
Please take this medicine.请把这些药吃了。

12.western: [′west?n]
西方的;来自西方的,它是west的形容词。 例如:
People in western countries have different traditions.
    西方国家的人们有着不同的传统。
【积累】类似的词有:east——eastern东方的 north——northern北方的
south——southern南方的

13.few: [fju:] 
1)形容词 adj. ①很少数的;几乎没有的
 There are fewer boys than girls in my class.我班上男生比女生少。
 There were few people in the streets. 街上人很少。

 ②(与a连用)有些,几个
He has a few friends in this city.他在这个城市里有几个朋友。

2)代词 pron. ①很少数;几乎没有
Few of my acquaintances like Sarah. 我的熟人中很少有人喜欢萨拉。

②(与a或the连用)一些,几个
Only a few of my friends were told about it.
    这件事只有我的几个朋友知道。

【辨析】few,a few,little,a ittle:
 (a) few + 可数名词, (a) little + 不可数名词
 a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点 few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。
 He has a few friends.   他有几个朋友。
 He has few friends.    他几乎没有朋友。
 We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。
 There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了。
典型例题:
  Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes.
  A. little  B. few C. a little  D. a few
  答案: A. spend所指的是钱,不可数,只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含义,因此应用little表示几乎不。
固定搭配:only a few (=few)  not a few (=many)  quite a few (=many)  many a (=many)
  Many books were sold.   Many a book was sold.    卖出了许多书。

 

14.important: [im′p?:t?nt]
 形容词 adj. 重要的,重大的[(+to/for)],名词形式为importance(重要性)
It is important to see that everything goes well. 重要的是确保一切顺利。
It is important to learn to communicate. 学会沟通思想很重要。
Here I would stress the importance of math to the whole of science.
    这里我要强调数学对整个科学的重要性。

15.moment: [′m?um?nt]
名词 n. 瞬间;片刻[C]
Just a moment, she's coming. 请稍等,她马上来。
【积累】由moment构成的短语:
in a moment一会儿,马上;at any moment随时,在任何时候;
at the last moment在最后关头;at the moment此刻,(正在)那时;
for a moment片刻,一会儿

 

16.late: [leit] 
1)adj. 迟的,晚的 The train was ten minutes late.火车晚点十分钟。
2)adv.晚 He came late to the meeting last time.上次他开会迟到了。

17.until[?n'til]  
conj.&prep. (=till) 直到...时,到...为止
 1) until用在肯定句,谓语动词通常是延续性动词,如stand, stay, talk, wait等,表示主句动作终止的时间。如:
  I waited until he came back.我一直等到他回来。
  The war lasted until 1945.战争持续到1945年。
  如果用在否定句,谓语动词通常是瞬间性动词,如open, start, leave, arrive, finish, stop等,强调主句动作开始的时间。如:
  I didn't leave the boy until his mother turned up.
直到这孩子的母亲来,我才离开。
  The noise of the street didn't stop until it was midnight.
街上的噪音直到半夜才停止。

2)当Not until位于句首时,句子要倒装。其结构为:Not until+从句/表时间的词+助动词+(主句)主语+谓语+...。如:

  Not until the teacher came in did the students stop talking.

直到老师进来学生们才停止讲话。

  Not until next week will the sports meet be held.直到下周才开运动会。

 3)not until的强调结构为:It is / was not until+从句/表时间的词+that+...。上面两句改为强调句为:

  It was not until the teacher came in that the students stopped talking.

  It is not until next week that the sports meet will be held.
4)当主句表示将来动作时,until引导的时间状语从句通常用一般现在时。
  I'll wait for you until you arrive.我将在那儿一直等到你来。

火眼金睛:

1.“病情”现身说法:
①“主语+have/has+a+表示疾病的名词”。
②“主语+have/has+a sore+发病部位”。例如:
I have a cold.我感冒了。Tom has a sore back.汤姆背疼。
【拓展】“某人生病”的另一种表达:
“Something is wrong with+one's+身体部位”
=“There is something wrong with+one's+身体部位”

.

2.有“问题” 不是“问题”:
problem与question这两个词都可译为“问题”,但是:
①problem只需要动手、动脑或群体合作解决的问题,如学术、人口、污染等问题。“解决”此问题要用“work out”,不能光用嘴来“回答”(answer)哦!
I spent two hours working out the math problem.(黄冈中考题)
      我解那道数学题花了两个小时。
②question是因对某事或某问题怀疑或为了搞清而提出的需要讨论、思考,等待回答的问题。 想好以后,你记住要“应答”(answer或reply to)啊!
You haven't replied to my question yet.你还没有回答我的问题呢。


3.“希望”何在?
hope做动词时,表示“希望,期待(某事发生)”,后接不定式或宾语从句。
I hope that he will succeed.我期望他会成功。
I hope to see you and your family soon. 我期待不久能见到你和你的家人。
【提醒】hope后不可接动名词或复合宾语。(不能说hope sb. to do sth.)hope还可以做可数名词或不可数名词。
You mustn't give up hope. 你一定不要绝望。
We have a slim hope of success. 我们有一线成功的希望。
【拓展】“希望”何在:
hope指的是可能实现的,愿望;wish用以表示难以实现或不可能实现的愿望。

  I hope that he will win the game.   我希望他会赢得这场比赛。

  I wish that I knew the answer.  我希望我知道这个答案。(其实我并不知情啊!)

4.“相信”我能行:
believe(相信)既可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词。believe的名词形式为belief,意为“信念、信条”。“信任某人”就是做到believe in sb.
【拓展】①believe不用于现在进行时。②believe,think,supposed等词的宾语从句若要表示否定意义,需否定转移,即否定主句的谓语动词。例如:
I don't believe he can fix the bike.我认为他修不好这辆自行车。(那就“相信”我能行吧!)

 

5.知识“太多”“也”不多: 
1)too many,too much与much too(太……)
  这三个词语的主要区别在于它们的中心词以及它们所修饰的词不同。三者之中的前一个词都是修饰词,用来加强语气,后一个词是中心词。因此,在使用时只需要考虑后一个词的用法就行了。分述如下: 
①too many的中心词是many,用法与many相同,用来修饰复数可数名词。例如;
He's got too many questions to ask you.他有很多问题要问你。   
Today,_____trees are still being cut down somewhere in the world.   
A.much too B.too much  C.many too D.too many   (1999年辽宁中考)
答案是D。今天,在世界上有些地方仍有很多树木被砍伐。   
②too much的中心词是much,用法与much相同,用来修饰不可数名词。例如:
We both have too much work to do.我们俩都有很多工作要做。
The teacher told him not to spend too much time playing games.
老师叫他不要花太多时间玩游戏。  
He can't hear you because there is _____noise here.(1999年黑龙江中考)
A.very much B.too much  C.much too D.so many   
答案是B。你讲话他听不到,因为这里太吵了。
另外,too much还可作名词性短语,用作宾语;也可作副词性短语,在句中用作状语,修饰动词。例如:   
My parents have given me too much.
我的父母给我的太多了。(可别忘了“感恩”呀!)
③much too的中心词是too,用法与too相同,用来修饰原级形容词或副词。如:
You're walking much too fast. Slow down.你走得太快了,慢点。   
The sweater is very beautiful,but it's _____dear.(1999年吉林中考)   
A.too much B.much too C.many D.more   
答案是B。这件毛衣很漂亮,但太贵了。 (同学们:购物要量力而行,可别攀比啊!)

2)also,too,either与as well(也)
also用在句中(一般放在be动词和助动词之后,行为动词之前)。
she is also good at English.  she also like  English.
too 多用于口语,位于句未或句中,只用于肯定句,其前常有逗号。
They are students,too.=They,too,are students.
否定句中用either.
as well 用于肯定句,通常位于句中或句尾。

He knows English,and he knows French as well.他懂英语,也懂点法语。

老师的advice(忠告):知识“太多”“也”不多!

 


6.风云“聚”义厅:

本单元重点句子释义集锦:

1. What’s the matter? I have a bad cold.
       你怎么了?我得了重感冒。

翻译:魏芳怎么了?她背痛。                          
 

2.Maybe you should see a dentist. 或许你应该看牙医。

翻译:我们不应该上课吃东西。                            

3.I hope you feel better soon. 我希望你很快好起来。

翻译:他希望能取得好成绩。                   

4.Traditional Chinese doctors believe we need a balance of yin and yang to be healthy.
     传统中医认为我们需要阴阳调和以保持身体健康。

翻译: 我相信每天晚上睡眠8个小时很重要。                       

 

 5.Eating Dangshen and Huangqi herbs is also good for this.

   吃党参和黄芪等草本植物也对这有好处。

翻译: 看电视太多对你的眼睛有害。______________________________ .
      

6.People who are too stressed out and angry may have too much yang.  

太紧张易怒的人或许吃了太多的阳性食物。

 

7.It’s easy to have a healthy lifestyle, and it’s important to eat a balanced diet.

   有一个健康的生活方式很容易,饮食平衡是很重要的。

翻译:上课注意听讲是必要的。                          
     

8.When you are tired, you shouldn’t go out at night.
 疲倦时,晚上你不该外出。

翻译:他小的时候就知道应该努力学习。                                 

        

9.I believe him, but I can’t believe in him.

他的话是真的,但是我不信任他这个人。

 

10.I am not feeling very well at the moment.
这段时间我感觉不大好。

I’m tired and I have a lot of headaches.
我很疲劳,而且经常头痛。

 

11.I’m stressed out because my Putonghua isn’t improving.

我很容易紧张,因为普通话没有长进。

 

【拓展】
12.I practice playing the piano every day.我每天练习弹钢琴。

翻译:  我们应该经常练习用英语写日记。                                  

 

13.She had finished writing the letter when I went in.
我进去时,她已经写完信了。

翻译:他踢完足球去游泳了。                          

       

14.The doctor asked him to give up smoking.医生叫他戒烟。

翻译:不要放弃学英语。                            

      

15.Do you mind closing the window? 请把窗户关上好吗?

翻译:在这里吸烟你介意吗?                          

        

16.Mary couldn’t help laughing at his jokes.
对于他的玩笑,玛莉忍不住笑了。

翻译:听到这个消息,我忍不住哭了起来。                            

 

17.They kept working though it was raining.
尽管天在下雨,他们仍坚持工作。

翻译:我们应该坚持说英语。                            

Keys:

1. What’s the matter with Wei Fang? She has a backache.

2. We shouldn′t eat in class.

3. She hopes she can get a good score.

4. We believe it is important for us to sleep for 8 hours every day.

5. Watching TV too much is bad for your eyes.

7. It′s necessary for us to listen carefully in class.

8. When he was young,he knew he should study hard.

12. We should practice writing diaries in English every day.

13. He went swimming after he finished playing soccer.

14. Don’t give up learning English.

15. Do you mind somking here?

16. I couldn’t help crying when I heard the news.

17. We should keep speaking English.)

 

 

语法聚焦:  
情态动词should的用法分析 

■表示“应该,应当”

You should help your mother with the housework.
你应该帮你母亲做家务。

Crime should be punished. 犯罪应受惩罚。

Should I wear a coat?我要穿大衣吗?

■表示“可能,该(=will probably) ”

He should arrive soon他可能很快就到了。

The train should have already left. 火车大概已经走了。

■表示“万一”

If it should rain tomorrow, don’t expect me.
万一明天下雨,就不要等我了。

■表示“竟然”

It’s strange that he should be late. 真奇怪,他竟会迟到。

■should与ought to的比较

(1) 除表示“万一”“竟然”等只能用should外,表示“应该,应当”“可能”等,两者可互换,只是ought to的语气稍重。如:

You ought to/should work harder than that.
你应当更努力地工作

She ought to/should finish it by next week.
下星期她可能完成了。

You ought to/should have told him about it earlier.
你本应该早点把这件事告诉他的。

You oughtn’t to/shouldn’t have wasted time like that.
你本不该像那样浪费时间的。

(2) should强调主观看法,而ought to强调客观要求。如:

We ought to go and see my mother in hospital tomorrow, but I don’t think we will.
   我们按理应当在明天去看看住院的母亲的,但我主认为我们不会去。

(3) 在公告、须知或条例中,出于礼貌,常用should。如:

You shouldn’t run alongside the swimming pool.
不准在游泳池边奔跑。

(4) 在虚拟语气中只能用should。如:

He suggested that I should go there. 他建议我去那里。

(5) 注意ought to的否定式与疑问式。如:

You ought not to do it. 你不应该做此事。

—Ought he to start now? 他现在该动身了吗?

—Yes, he ought (to) . 是的,该动身了。

They ought to go now, oughtn’t they?他们现在该走了,对吗?

  

典例剖析:

1.——I'm sorry to keep you waiting so long.  ——_____.
     A.Don't say so.     B.I don't think so.
C.I'd love to       D.It doesn't matter.
【剖析】本题考查交际用语。句意为“对不起,让你久等了。”“没关系”。对别人表示歉意的回答应用It doesn't matter.故答案选D.(同学们:平常说话双方都要讲礼貌!)

  
2.  _____to ask me for help?
A.Why don't come         B.Why not come
C.Why you don't come     D.Why not to come    (2008湖北孝感中考)
【剖析】本题考查提出建议的句型Why not do sth.?,它是Why don't you  do sth.?的省略形式,why后面只保留not和动词原形。故答案选B.

  
3.How long  did you catch a cold last time?(改错)
                              D
  【剖析】本题考查catch/have a cold短语的运用。how long表示一段时间,catch(抓住)是一个短暂性动词,它不能和how long或for three days之类的短语用在一个句子中。故答案选C,改为have a cold.
(健康指南:感冒久了可不行,别忘了吃药“take some medicine”啊!) 
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