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2011中考英语备战复习:宾语从句点点滴滴>>5151doc

2011中考英语备战复习:宾语从句点点滴滴
作者:佚名 文章来源:教育资源库 点击数: 更新时间:2010-12-3

句子:

主语   谓语    宾语

 

这些宾语都是一个单词或短语。

 She       is         a student.

 

 He       says        hello.

       want to know  English.

 

A 、 He       says        Lilei is 12 years old.

 

这些宾语都是一个句子,这些句子在整个句子中充当宾语,也就是宾语也是一个句子的情况,那么这么句子就叫做宾语从句了。

这个时候不能直接跟在谓语后面,而要注意连接词、语序、时态的变化

He       knows      Lilei opens the door.

 

  

B  I      want to know  what’s your name?

 They      ask        what do you go?

 

C   Lily      don’t know   is it an apple?

       guess        do you like Beijing?

 

 宾语从句是英语复合句中的其中非常重要的从句之一。它是用一个句子做另一个句子的宾语,将这个句子叫做宾语从句。宾语从句做介词或及物动词的宾语。现在从下列三个方面总结归纳如下:

  一,引导词

A(当谓语连接的句子是陈述句)由that 引导宾语从句,在很多动词如say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等动词后。连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。

  例:I told him that he was wrong.

 

B(当谓语连接的句子是特殊疑问句)由特殊疑问词who, whose, what, which, when, where, why, how ,how many,how much, how old等连接的宾语从句。(标点看主句)

例:I want to know ,what’s your name? → I want to know what your name is.

 They ask ,where do you go?      →  They ask where you go.

Do you know, what are they talking about? →Do you know what they are talking about ?

  I don’t know where he lives.

 

C(当谓语连接的句子是一般疑问句时)由连词if、 whether 引导的表示“是否…”。一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。(标点看主句)

  例:I don’t know, will he come tomorrow ? →I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.

  在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导

  例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。

  宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.

  例:I don’t know whether the movie star will come or not.

 

二,宾语从句的语序,

  ★宾语从句从句的语序必须是陈述语序,既连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

  例:I believe that they will come soon.

      He asked me whether I was a teacher.

      They wanted to know what they can do for us.

  ★注意:当从句的原句为以下句子以及what, who作主语时,语序不变:

What’s wrong?  What’s the matter? What’s happening? What happeneed?

   eg:I don’t know what’s the matter.

      Can you tell me who is over there?

 

三、宾语从句的时态。

  宾语从句的时态受主句的限制,

  既:主句是一般现在时态,从句根据实际情况而定。

 主句是一般过去时态,从句用相应的过去的时态。

  例:1)She says that she is a student.

       She said that she was a student.

      4)She says that she can sing a song in English.

       She said that she could sing a song in English.

 如果宾语从句说的是客观真理、自然现象或事实时,这时宾语从句要用一般现在时态。

  例:The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

      He told me that Japan is an island country.

   Could you tell me…是用来征询对方的意见,语气委婉,并不表示过去。

  例:Could you tell me when we will visit the Histury Museum?

 

 注意事项:

  1、由陈述句变成宾语从句时,要注意人称的变化。

  例:She said: “I have been to England before.” →She said that she had been to England before.

      She asked me: “Do you like maths?”        → She asked me if I liked maths.

★注意:当从句的原句为以下句子以及what, who作主语时,语序不变:

What’s wrong?  What’s the matter? What’s happening? What happeneed?

   eg: I don’t know what’s the matter.

      Can you tell me who is over there?

 

宾语从句与简单句的交换。

  ★由连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句,如果宾语从句的主语和主句的主语是同一个人时,可以用“疑问词+不定式”做宾语的简单句结构。

  例:I don’t know what I should do next. → I don’t know what to do next.

      He didn’t know where he would live. → He didn’t know where to live.

 

宾语从句的否定:

★如主句主语是第一人称I, we,且谓语动词是think,believe, suppose, expect,guess等表心理活动的动词时,变否定要否定转移,即否定主句。否则否定看从句。

I think chicken can swim. → I don’t think chicken can swim.(我认为鸡不会游泳)

He says that Lily goes shopping. → He says that Lily doesn’t go shopping.(他说lily没去购物)。

变反意疑问句:如主句主语是第一人称I, we,且谓语动词是think,guess,believe等表心理活动的动词时,变反意疑问句时看从句,否则看主句。

I think he is a good student, is’t he?

They want to know if he is a good student, don’t they?

值得注意的是,当这些词后接的宾语从句的否定转移到主句时,其仍属否定词,故其后的短语句式应为肯定。

e.g.I don't believe that he can translate this book, can he?

We don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he? 我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?

 

做练习:

  1.Can you see________?

  A. what he’s reading B. what is he reading C. what does he read D. he reads what

  2.Does Jack come from Japan? Do you know?(合并成一个句子)

  Do you know_____Jack _____from Japan?

  3._What did your son say in the letter?

  _He told me that he___ the Disney  the next day

  A.will visit B. has visited  C. is going to visit D. would visit

  4.He didn’t know__________

  A.what’s the matter B.what the matter is

  C. what was the matter D. what the matter was

  5.Somebody called you just now,but I didn’t know____

  A.who were they  B. who they were C. who was it D. who it was

  6.I want to know_____

  A.what is his name B. what’s his name C. that his name is D. what his name is

  7.---Could you tell me ___she is looking for?

  ---Her cousin,susan.

  A.that B.whose C .who D.which

  8.---What are you searching the Internet for?

  ---I’m trying to find out____.

  A.What is the difference between SARS and BIRDFLU B.How many persons have died in Iraq

  C.How to protect our environment D.Why is our Chinese team be able to beat Korea

  9.Do you know      _____        ___      ___ (谁正在唱歌)

  10.Do you know     ____              _______ (她正在和谁谈话)

  11.Do you know     ____               ______?(昨天发生了什么事)

12.李明说他对玩电脑游戏感兴趣。                                                  

13.我认为Mary不回来了。                                                         

14.Sam跟我说他准备去上海。                                                  

15.请你告诉我去银行怎么走吗?                                                  

16.父亲说他买了一台新电脑。                                                  

17.我想知道今天晚上还有没有去北京的火车。                                                   

18.你知道一间房多少钱吗?                                                  

19.请你告诉我我们外出多长时间呢?                                                  

20.叔叔说他正在写一本新小说。                                                       

21.杰克说他有重要的事情要做。                               

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